Turkish, is the official language of the country, that is related to the Uralic-Altaic languages spoken across from Finland to China. The language has undergone major reforms during the 20th century. Arabic and Persian scripts were used during the Ottoman Empire period, but a modified Latin-based alphabet, with some extra letters, was introduced in 1928 which has been spoken since then. The Turkish alphabet doesn't contain the letters "Q , W, X . of the English alphabet. Most of the Kurdish minority speaks Kurdish which also has some common words with Turkish Language. Arabic is also spoken especially in the Southeastern provinces. English is also becoming a popular foreign language probably as third language.
The Turkish alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, a certain number of which (Ç, Ð, I, Ý, Ö, Þ, and Ü) have been adapted or modified for the phonetic requirements of the language.
These letters are, in the upper case:
A, B, C, Ç, D, E, F, G, Ð, H, I, Ý, J, K, L, M, N, O, Ö, P, R, S, Þ, T, U, Ü, V, Y, Z
and in the lower case:
a, b, c, ç, d, e, f, g, ð, h, ý, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, ö, p, r, s, þ, t, u, ü, v, y, z.
This translates to 8 vowels (A, E, I, Ý, O, Ö, U, Ü) and 21 consonants.